Thursday, May 09, 2013

history of lucknow




The origin & history of Lucknow is truly intriguing not just to the historians but also to the common man. The history of Lucknow can be traced back to the ancient times of the Suryavanshi Dynasty. It is said that Lakshmana, who was the brother of Lord Rama, laid the foundation of the ancient city. This was near the Gomti River on an elevated piece of land. It was then called Lakshmanpur. However, the city came into notice only during the 18th Century. To know more about Lucknow history, read further the information given below. It was during the year 1720 when the great Mughal emperors began to appoint Nawabs in order to ensure smooth administration in the province. In the year 1732, Mohammad Amir Saadat Khan was appointed as the viceroyal of Awadh, in which Lucknow was a major province. It was then that the powerful dynasty of the Nawabs, which changed the history of this unknown place. Under the rule of the Nawabs, Lucknow flourished like never before. After 1755, Lucknow grew by leaps and bounds under the rule of the fourth Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula. Lucknow flourished in each and every aspect, which includes poetry, dance, music and the other finer aspects of the lifestyle of Lucknow. It was when the British came to India that Lucknow was made into an administrative capital. There were many uprisings during the British rule by Indian radicals and many ghastly incidents left Lucknow with bad memories. However, after independence Lucknow was declared the capital of the state of Uttar Pradesh by the Government of India. Since then it has progressed beautifully, merging skillfully the past with the present.

history of jaipur;india




Forts, palaces, architectural marvels and tales of valour, all in their own way, bear testimony to the glory that Jaipur is and was just after it was conceived by Sawai Jai Singh in 1727. Located 262 kilometers from Delhi, jaipur was the first planned city in northern India. Jaipur's history dates back to the 12th century when the Kachchwaha clan o Rajputs arrived at the old fort palace of Amber in the Aravalli Hills. The Kachchwaha belonged to the Kshatriya, or the warrior caste of Hindus, but they traced their origins back to the sun, via Kusa who the twin son of the god Rama.
The people the Kachchwahas ousted were the Susawat Minas, who became the hereditary loyal guards of what became one of the largest and most valuable treasuries in India. From this base, the Kachchwaha Rajputs, with their brilliant soldiering, and a knack for lucrative alliances (even if that meant swallowingg Rajput pride), amassed a fortune. It was the special relationship the Amber rulers developed with the Mughals that brought them real power, influence and wealth.

vijayawada now/india


VIJAYAWADA is practically the centre of Andhra in all its aspects. It is an important junction in the Madras-Calcutta, Madras - Delhi routes, and probably the foremost town of Andhra. It contains three ancient temples viz., the Kanakadurga temple, the Malleswaraswamy temple and the Vijayeswaraswami temple. These are the three temples of Vijayawada. 

Vijayawada is known in mythology as Vijayavata, and is mentioned in some inscriptions as Rajendracholapura also. it is a famous place of pilgrimage on the river Krishna, and 'has a temple dedicated to Lord Siva in his aspect of Malleswara or Jayasena. Sage Agasthya is said to have been the greatest devotee of this deity and admirer of the deity's several leelas.The origin or installation of Kanaka - durga Devi at Vijayawada is unknown. She is said to be Swayambu or selfmanifest. She also takes the aspect of Chandi or destroyer of the demon Durgama who was causing havoc among the peace - loving inhabitants of Dakshinapatha.

Mallikarjuna or the Malleswara as he is known in the Puranas is said to have been installed by Yudhishthira, the eldest of the Pancha Pandavas, as a token of their victory of the South. Thribhuvana Malla, Western Chalukya King of the 10th century A.D, historically constructed the temple.

The installation of Vijayeswara is said to have been done by Arjuna, one of the Pancha Pandavas, to commemorate his victory with Lord Siva in the shape of Kirata or hunter.

The place Vijayawada is surrounded by many hillocks and the most important of them is Seethanagaram, while the less important is called the Kanakadurga or Kanaka konda. On the southern side of the Kanakadurga temple, is a hillock with sculptures bearing inscriptions, indicating the names of Gods and Goddesses cut below them. Most of these figures are forms of the Goddess in her aspect of Durga, which are dealt with in the Mantra Sastras. Traditionally these hills were originally continuous and at the command of the Lord, they got separated, making enough space for the river Krishna to pass through.

One of these hills is called Indrakila, which is a famous hill mentioned in the Mahabharata as the place where the Pandava hero Arjuna obtained from Lord Siva an important weapon called Pasupatastra. The aspect of Lord Siva who appeared before Arjuna for granting him the boon is Kirata or the hunter. Bharavi in his celebrated Kavya "The Kirtarjuneeya" has immortalized this. The temple of Vijayeswara is attributed to Arjuna to commemorate the event of obtaining Pasupatha. The shrine has the representation of this and many other events of the Mahabharata commemorated in sculpture.

The legend is as follows:

During their wanderings in the forest, the Pancha Pandavas came to Darukavana, where Vedavyasa met them, and told them that one of them should perform Tapascharya in praise of Lord Siva, and obtain from him, the Pasupatastra as a boon, so that they may easily conquer their enemies. Arjuna was chosen for this task and be betook himself to the top of the Indrakila hill (which is said to be the same as the Indrakila hill of Vijayawada) and was performing intense Tapascharya, with his arms upraised, and standing on one foot, and surrounded by the Pancha Agnis or five fires, with four artificial fires around him, and the fifth being the Sun God himself above him. Being pleased with the great Tapascharya of Arjuna, Lord Siva wanted to further test his sincerity, before granting him the desired boon, and therefore took the form of a Kirata or hunter. Parvati also dressed herself as a huntress and the Sivagana of the Lord also came in several disguises. Accompanied by all these, Lord Siva was hunting on the Indrakila bill, driving a wild boar in front of him. 

The wild boar came to the side of Arjuna, and Arjuna being a great warrior, took up his bow, and shot it with a single arrow. At the same time, Lord Siva who was following it also shot it with an arrow, and being struck by both the arrows, the boar fell down dead in the middle. Both the Lord and Arjuna claimed the boar as their kill, and a -controversy arose between them, as to whom the boar should belong. Words led to physical quarrel shortly, and the Lord and Arjuna began to wrestle with each other. An experienced and powerful wrestler though he was, Arjuna was no match before the Lord himself, and was soon exhausted. Even in the midst of that desperate struggle, he never lost his one-pointedness of mind and devotion to the Lord.

To invoke divine aid in his favor, he made a Shivalinga out of the earth, worshipped it, and offered prayers to it. He saw the flowers, with which he worshipped the Linga, as physically falling on the hunter before him and he thereupon realised that the hunter was none other than the Lord himself. The hunter immediately disappeared and the Lord appeared himself before Arjuna, in all his glory. Arjuna prayed to him and his prayer was granted, and Pasupatha was given to him by Lord Siva, As a commemoration of this great event, Arjuna is supposed to have installed the Vijayeswara temple here, in the Indrakila hill.

In the Indrakila there are several rock-cut temples. These were supposed originally to be ancient temples, but during the course of time, they were completely buried under debris. When quarrying for stone and road metal was done, they were revealed, and the rock-out temples were preserved as protected monuments. There is in the temple an excellent stone sculpture, which contains in all its four faces the story of Kiratarjuneeyam.

There are interesting legends about the origin of the Malleswaraswamy temple also. It is stated that, prior to the Kaliyuga, the sage Agasthya had named the Lord at Vijayawada as Jayasena.The Mahabharata hero Arjuna, who was a great wrestler or Mallayoddha, called the Lord as Malleswara. The thus famous Lord Siva so goes the legend, graces with his presence and blesses the town Vijayawada on the banks of the sacred Krishna River.

There is another legend about this in which it is stated that in the Kaliyuga, as early as Saka year 117, there was a king famous on earth by name Madhava Varma. The son, of this Icing once killed by accident the child of a woman who eked her livelihood by selling the fruits of tamarind trees (Intrini-Jeevini). The king, who meted out justice according to the principles of Dharma, sentenced his own son to be banged, in order to uphold the principles of justice. Pleased at this impartial attitude and the adherence to principles of Dharma, of this king, God Malleswara came down and showered gold on him, which brought back to life the deceased prince and the dead child.

Thus the great Lord Malleswara. Established in this world, the name of the great King Madhava Varma. Later on a pious devotee by name Panditharadhya came here, and proclaimed to the world that the devotees of Lord Siva were superior even to the sages. He illustrated the truth of this, by bundling up live, coal in a piece of cloth, with the tender twig of a Sami tree, without burning it. God Malleswara was pleased with it and manifested himself to this devotee. This Lord according to the popular legend, is Mahadeva Malleswara, "the endless one ' the lover of his devotees and worshipping whom the lords of the earth prospered of old".

There is an inscription in the temple, of the 9th century A.D., in the usual Telugu script. The inscription is strangely recorded from bottom upwards. Its purport is to say that a certain Thrikoti Boyi or Trikoti Boyu, the son of Kaliyama-Boy of Pechchevada, set up the pillar as a commemoration of his own fame, in order to secure distinction for his race. The Thrikoti Boyi is identified in the inscription with a Guhyaka Yaksha, who in Dwaparayuga was directed by Indra to direct Arjuna to Indrakila hill, where Arjuna should worship the Lord Siva in order to obtain Pasupatha from him.

Besides being a religious centre, Vijayawada is also the very centre of Andhra culture. The Chalukyas of Kalyani once conquered this place, and the famous Chinese Huin. Tsang had visited this place in 639 A.D. when Buddhism was at its zenith. Vijayawada that is a famous centre of Andhra thus enshrines three important and ancient temples and the temple of Kanakadurga is especially a sacred and powerful one, which attracts a large number of pilgrims even now.

vizag,visakha,visakhapatnam history


Visakhapatnam has volumes of history to talk about. But the credit of preserving records about the Visakhapatnam's past goes to the Visakha Museum, also called Corporation Museum. The Visakha Museum is located at an old Dutch Bungalow on the RK Beach Road.
The Museum has some of the best and finest artistic items put on display. Portraits, some of them even at life-size depicting the members of the Royal family of the Vizianagaram and Bobbili, Two Armour suits, two stands of spears and muzzleloading guns, several ancient weapons such as steel bows, handguns that date back to the British-rule times are some of the things one should not miss.
The Visakha Museum also showcases some of the artifacts collected from other institutions. These include the 250-lb bomb that was dropped by the Japanese during the World War II. The shell bomb did not however explode. The shell bomb is now put on display at the Museum.
The Museum preserves the coconut that was broken by the then Prime Minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru when he came for the inauguration of the first ship that was indigenously built  the S.S Jala Usha.
The Bronze busts used by the first Indian Chairman of Visakhapatnam Port Trust Nanjundiah were also preserved.
Father of the Nation  Gandhiji has lots of connections with Visakhapatnam. The Museum has a nice collection of photographs of Gandhiji  particularly the ones during his visit to Vizag when he stayed at the Nkitam House. The desk used by him during his visit was also preserved. The desk was later used by Tenneti Vishwanatham.
The Museum is currently headed by Curator Prof. E.V. Gangadharam who was also the Director, Centre for Marine Archaeology. Mr. S. Prabhu Das is the Superintendent-in-charge, Museum.

history of ahmedabad

Situated on the banks of river Sabarmati, Ahmedabad is located on the western side of India in the state of Gujarat. Ahmedabad city has witnessed the rule of different dynasties, right from Sultanate and Mughal rule to Maratha and British rule. Thus, the history of Ahmedabad, India is very rich. Ahmedabad was the former capital city of Gujarat. During the freedom struggle of India, it served as the home of many prominent nationalist leaders like Sardar Patel and Mahatma Gandhi. To know more about the origin & history of Ahmedabad, read on…

Origin of Name
There is an interesting legend associated with the Ahmedabad city. Towards the beginning of the fifteenth century, the state of Gujarat was ruled by the Muslim Muzaffarid dynasty. Once Sultan Ahmed Shah was standing on the banks of river Sabarmati and he noticed a tiny hare chasing a strong ferocious dog. He kept pondering over it. He approached a spiritual leader and asked for explanation. This learned man said that, it is the uniqueness of this land that cultivates such rare qualities in its people. After having heard this, the Sultan got so impressed that he decided to set up the capital of Gujarat over here and he called this land Ahmedabad. 

Sultanate Rule
Towards the end of the thirteenth century, Gujarat was captured by the Sultanate of Delhi. In the year 1487, the grandson of Ahmed Shah named Mahmud Begada established the outer city wall, so as to protect Ahmedabad from outside invasion. Muzaffar II was the last Sultan of Ahmedabad. 

Mughal Rule
In the year 1573, the city of Ahmed Shah was taken over by the Mughal emperor Akbar. Under the rule of Mughals, Ahmedabad became the leading centre of textiles in Gujarat. The son of Akbar named Jehangir visited Ahmedabad in 1617, but found the city to be nothing more than a garbage ground. So, he called it Gardabad, the city of dust. However, Shahjahan spent a major part of his life in the Ahmedabad city. Infact, he also constructed the Moti Shahi Mahal in Shahibaugh. 

Maratha Rule
In the year 1753, the rule of Mughals came to an end and the city came under the rule of Maratha generals Raghunath Rao and Damaji Gaekwad. The power struggle between them eventually led to the destruction of the city. 

British Rule
The city was taken over by the British East India Company in the year 1818. The year 1824 led to the setting up of a military cantonment. A major development took place in the year 1864, when railway line was laid that connected Ahmedabad with Bombay. These developments brought Ahmedabad in the map of leading centers of trade and manufacturing. In the year 1915, people of Ahmedabad raised their voice for the independence of India. 

Post Independence
The post independence period saw the declaration of Ahmedabad as a provincial town of Bombay. On the 1st of May in the year 1960, Ahmedabad became the capital city of Gujarat.

surat history



The existence of Surat city dates back to the years of Mahabharat i.e. about year 3,000 B.C. It is  said that Lord Krishna stopped with his cows on his transition from Mathura to Dwarka city and the images of the cow's foot prints are still visible to the devotees at a place popularly called  "Gai Pagli" (Foot steps of cows).

bangalore india

Bangalore is draped over the Deccan Plateau at an altitude of 949 meters (3113 ft.) above sea level, which gives it possibly the best climate among all the cities in India. Legend has it that Bangalore got its name from the words “Bendha KaaLu” (which means boiled beans in the local language Kannada). King Veera Ballala of the Vijayanagara kingdom was once lost in a forest and happened to stumble upon a lonely cottage. An old woman that lived there could offer the starving king only boiled beans “Bendha kaaLu” and the place came to be known as “Bendha kaaLu ooru” (ooru in Kannada means a city). BendhakaaLooru later came to be known as BengaLooru in Kannada and Bangalore in English. However, historical evidence shows that “BengaLooru” was recorded much before King Ballala's time in a 9th century temple inscription in the village of Begur. Even today "BengaLooru" exists within the city limits in Kodigehalli area and is called as "HalebengaLooru" or "Old Bangalore.
The present day city was designed by Kempe Gowda in the year 1537. During one of his hunting bouts, which was his favourite past time, Kempe Gowda was surprised to see a hare chase his dog and thus named the place as "gandu bhoomi" (heroic place). Kempe Gowda I, who was in charge of Yelahanka, built a mud fort in 1537 and with the help of King Achutaraya, built the little towns of Balepet, Cottonpet and Chickpet, all inside the fort. Today, these little areas serve as the major wholesale and commercial market places in the city. Kempe Gowda's son erected the four watch towers to mark the boundaries of Bangalore which are traceable even today and they stand almost in the heart of the present city.

kolkata history;calcutta history

In 1690, Job Charnok, an agent of the East India Company chose this place for a British trade settlement. The site was carefully selected, being protected by the Hooghly River on the west, a creek to the north, and by salt lakes about two and a half miles to the east. There were three large villages along the east bank of the river Ganges, named, Sutanuti, Gobindapur and Kalikata. These three villages were bought by the British from the local land lords. The Mughal emperor granted East India Company freedom of trade in return for a yearly payment of 3,000 rupees. What was Calcutta like before the British came It was a village; the capital city of Bengal was Murshidabad, around 60 miles north of Calcutta. In 1756, Siraj-ud-daullah, of Bengal, attacked the city and captured the fort. Calcutta was recaptured in 1757 by Robert Clive when the British defeated Siraj-ud-daullah on the battle field of Plassy. In 1772, Calcutta became the capital of British India, and the first Governor General Warren Hastings moved all important offices from Murshidabad to Calcutta. Till 1912, Calcutta was the capital of India, when the British moved the capital city to Delhi. In 1947, when India gained freedom and the country got partitioned between India and Pakistan, Calcutta was included in the Indian part of Bengal, West Bengal. Calcutta became the capital city of the state of West Bengal.

whats in for tommorow;10-5-2013

Ajay;
Chengaiah;
call NRN;
Madhu;
pay photon;
Kiran;

GTAS contribution?? to plan;
call more ppl;

mumbai history

The city of Bombay originally consisted of seven islands, namely Colaba, Mazagaon, Old Woman's Island, Wadala, Mahim, Parel, and Matunga-Sion. This group of islands, which have since been joined together by a series of reclamations, formed part of the kingdom of Ashoka, the famous Emperor of India.
After his death, these islands passed into the hands of various Hindu rulers until 1343. In that year, the Mohammedans of Gujerat took possession and the Kings of that province of India ruled for the next two centuries. The only vestige (mark) of their dominion over these islands that remains today is the mosque at Mahim.
In 1534 the Portuguese, who already possessed many important trading centers on the western coast, such as Panjim, Daman, and Diu, took Bombay by force of arms from the Mohammedans. This led to the establishment of numerous churches which were constructed in areas where the majority of people were Roman Catholics. There used to be two areas in Bombay called "Portuguese Church". However, only one church with Portuguese-style facade still remains; it is the St. Andrew's church at Bandra. The Portuguese also fortified their possession by building forts at Sion, Mahim, Bandra, and Bassien which, although in disrepair, can still be seen. They named their new possession as "Bom Baia" which in Portuguese means "Good Bay".
A hundred and twenty-eight years later the islands were given to the English King Charles II in dowry on his marriage to Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza in 1662. In the year 1668 the islands were acquired by the English East India Company on lease from the crown for an annual sum of 10 pounds in gold; so little did the British value these islands at that time. The Company, which was operating from Surat, was in search for another deeper water port so that larger vessels could dock, and found the islands of Bombay suitable for development. The shifting of the East India Company's headquarters to Bombay in 1687 led to the eclipse of Surat as a principal trading center. The British corrupted the Portuguese name "Bom Baia" to "Bombay". The Kolis used to call the islands "Mumba" after Mumbadevi, the Hindu deity to whom a temple is dedicated at Babulnath near Chowpatty's sandy beaches. The first Parsi to arrive in Bombay was Dorabji Nanabhoy Patel in 1640. The Parsis, originally from Iran, migrated to India about 900 years ago. This they did to save their religion, Zoroastrianism, from invading Arabs who proselytized Islam. However, in 1689-90, when a severe plague had struck down most of the Europeans, the Siddi Chief of Janjira made several attempts to re-possess the islands by force, but the son of the former, a trader named Rustomji Dorabji Patel (1667-1763), successfully warded off the attacks on behalf of the British with the help of the 'Kolis', the original fisher-folk inhabitants of these islands. The remnants of the Koli settlements can still be seen at Backbay reclamation, Mahim, Bandra, Khar, Bassien and Madh island.
Sir George Oxenden became the first British Governor of the islands, and was succeeded later by Mr. Gerald Aungier who made Bombay more populous by attracting Gujerati traders, Parsi ship-builders, and Muslim and Hindu manufacturers from the mainland. He fortified defenses by constructing the Bombay Castle (the Fort, since then vanished except for a small portion of the wall) and provided stability by constituting courts of law.
Between 1822 and 1838, cattle from the congested fort area used to graze freely at the Camp Maidan (now called Azad Maidan), an open ground opposite the Victoria Terminus. In 1838, the British rulers introduced a 'grazing fee' which several cattle-owners could not afford. Therefore, Sir Jamshedji Jeejeebhoy spent Rs. 20,000 from his own purse for purchasing some grasslands near the seafront at Thakurdwar and saw that the starving cattle grazed without a fee in that area. In time the area became to be known as "Charni" meaning grazing. When a railway station on the BB&CI railway was constructed there it was called Charni Road.
The Zoroastrian Towers of Silence on Malabar hill were built by Seth Modi Hirji Vachha in 1672. The Zoroastrians believe in venerating the earth, fire, and water and hence they prefer to expose their dead to the elements and flesh-eating birds within the confines of the Towers of Silence. The first fire-temple was also built in the same year by Seth Vachha opposite his residence at Modikhana within the British fort. Both of the these structures can still be seen today although they have been expanded and strengthened.
The inroads of the sea at Worli, Mahim, and Mahalaxmi turned the ground between the islands into swamps making Bombay an extremely unhealthy place at that time. Many commuters going to the Fort by boat between islands lost their lives when there was a storm during the monsoons (July to September). During the next 40 years much was done to improve matters. Reclamation work to stop the breeches at Mahalaxmi and Worli were undertaken. The Hornby Vellard was completed in 1784, during the Governorship of Mr. Hornby. In 1803 Bombay was connected with Salsette by a causeway at Sion. The island of Colaba was joined to Bombay in 1838 by a causeway now called Colaba Causeway and the Causeway connecting Mahim and Bandra was completed in 1845 at the total cost of Rs.1,57,000 donated entirely by Lady Avabai Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, wife of the first baronet Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy with a stipulation that no toll would be charged to citizens for its use by the government. Initially the cost was estimated at Rs.100,000 but as the work commenced in 1842 the cost escalated. When the initial sum was exhausted and work about to stop Lady Jeejeebhoy once again dipped in to her personal purse with a second donation to the treasury of Rs.57,000.
Sir Robert Grant (1779-1838) governed Bombay from 1835 to 1838 and was responsible for the construction of a number of roads between Bombay and the hinterland. The Thana and Colaba Causeways were built during his tenure as well as the Grant Medical College attached to the Sir Jamshedji Jeejeebhoy (J.J.) Group of hospitals.
On Saturday 16th of April, 1853 a 21-mile long railway line, the first in India, between Bombay's Victoria Terminus and Thana was opened. The Great Indian Peninsular (GIP) and the Bombay Baroda and Central India (BB&CI) Railway were started in 1860 and a regular service of steamers on the west coast was commenced in 1869. Also during this period Bombay enjoyed great economic wealth. Raw cotton from Gujerat was shipped to Lancashire in England through Bombay port, and after being spun and woven into cloth, returned to be sold in the Indian market. The outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861 increased the demand for cotton in the West and several personal fortunes were made during this period from the resulting trade. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 brought the West closer to Bombay, and as the city became more prosperous, many schemes were launched for reclaiming additional land and building more roads and wharves. Bombay began to attract fortune hunters by the hundreds and the population had swelled from 13,726 in 1780 to 644,405 in 1872, in a little less than a hundred years. By 1906 the population of Bombay was to become 977,822.

delhi history


 Delhi, has seen the rise and fall  of many empires which have left behind a plethora of monuments that the grandeur and glory of bygone ages . A city which traces its history to Mahabharata, the great epic tale of wars fought between  estranged cousins , the Kauravas and the Pandavas for the city of Indraprastha.
                   Mughals ruled Delhi in succession starting from Qutab-ub-din to  Khiljis, Tughlaqs . The city of Delhi  passed on to the hands of the British in 1803 AD. It was only in 1911, when the capital of British empire was shifted from Calcutta  to Delhi,  that Delhi got its present prestige. After independence also, a kind of autonomy was conferred on the capital but it largely remained a chief commissioners regime. In 1956 Delhi was converted into a Union territory and gradually the chief commissioner was replaced by a Lt. Governor. In 1991, the national capital territory Act was passed by the parliament and a system of diarchy was introduced under which, the elected Government was given wide powers; except law and order which remained with the central Government. The actual enforcement of the legislation came in 1993.
                        New Delhi, the capital of India, sprawled over the west bank of the river Yamuna is one of the fastest growing cities in India. It is surrounded on three sides by Haryana and to the east, across the river Yamuna by Uttar Pradesh. Historically, the city has long since been the foremost in political importance with successive dynasties choosing it as their seat of power, between the 13th and the 17th centuries.  Remnants of the glorious past survive as important monuments in different parts of the city.  
               The myriad faces of the city are simply fascinating. In some places it remains a garden city, tree lined and with beautiful parks, but in some places it can also be crowded with heavy traffic. Turbaned Sikhs, colourfully  dressed Rajasthani and Gujarati women working in offices, Muslim shopkeepers along Chandni Chowk in Old Delhi, Tibetans and Ladakhis in the street stalls along Janpath and Kashmiris in the handicraft emporia around Connaught Place, all add to the cosmopolitan feel of the city. Soaring skyscrapers, posh residential colonies and bustling commercial complexes can be seen along with the ancient historical monuments. Its boutiques and shopping arcades offer access to a wealth of traditional and contemporary crafts, from all over the country. Old Delhi which looks entirely different from New Delhi area, is about 6 Km north of the city center.

chennai india

Chennai - The first city of Tamil Nadu and the present Gateway to South India is about 368 years old and 34th largest metropolitan area in the world. Founded at Fort St. George in 1640 AD by Francis Day, an employee of the East India Company, Chennai, today is one of the great metropolitan cities of the World, and the fourth largest city in India. Chennai is india's third largest commercial and industrial centre. It has a distinction of being considered the automobile capital of India.
Chennai - The first city of Tamil Nadu and the present Gateway to South India is about 350 years old. Founded at Fort St. George in 1640 AD by Francis Day, an employee of the East India Company, Chennai, today is one of the great metropolitan cities of the World, and the fourth largest city in India.Chennai was the first British people's major settlement in India. In the city, one cannot fail to notice the dominant British influences in the form of old Cathedrals, buildings in the Indo-Saracenic style of architecture and wide tree lined avenues. But Chennai retains a charm characteristic of the typical South Indian heritage. As a city it continues to maintain the best of South Indian traditions. This may not be surprising because the region was an important center of Pallava culture. Long before when the British came here, the traces or inscriptions were found in numerous old temples.

Raebareli india

Raebareli is important, because, it is one of the six districts of Lucknow division. The places to visit are the Botanical Garden, Bird Sanctuary, Behta Bridge etc., The city is more in the news because of its political importance. In modern times, however, Raebareli was transformed from the traditional agro economy, and cast onto the industrial map of India way back in the seventies under the dynamic leadership of then Prime Minister of India, Mrs.Indhira Gandhi.

goa india

Goa is a land of many fragrance and flavours of mouth watering seafood and fiery feni. Goa is all about fun, frolic, beaches with perfect ambience, great music and authentic cuisine at beach shacks Goa is the smallest state of Indian Union and is situated on the coast of konkan. It was a part of the Union Territory of Goa, Diu and Daman. Formerly a Portuguese possession, it was annexed by India in 1962 and attained statehood in 1987. Situated between Karnataka and Maharashtra, Goa is bounded on the north by the terekhol river surrounded on the south and east by Karnataka while on the west by Arabian sea. Goa is a Tourists Paradise.
Goa is a great holiday destination for all die for hard romantics, attracts large number of tourist across the globe. The fun, spirit of people,sandy beaches,the magic that makes the Goa so special. The fun loving people wait for the sunset and then the fun begins in Goa. Sunsets but "Fun never sets in Goa".

tiruppur india

Tiruppur has gained universal recognition as the leading source of Hosiery, Knitted Garments, Casual Wear and Sportswear. Tiruppur is an important trade center of India. Tiruppur is a major source of Foreign Exchange for the country because of its exports. Tiruppur has gained universal recognition as the leading source of Hosiery, Knitted Garments, Casual Wear and Sportswear. The city accounts for 90 % of India's cotton knitwear export, worth an estimated US$ 1 bn. Tiruppur is basically a traditional centre for cotton ginning. Here you will find information about Tiruppur and its business activities.

kofaikanal india


Kodaikanal is one of the most popular hill resorts in India. It is a charming hill station, stands amidst sylvan beauty on the southern crest of the upper Palani Hills near Madurai in Tamil Nadu. With its rocks, woods, lovely lake and bracing air, Kodaikanal is an ideal hill resort for the tourists.
The unique flowering plant 'Kurunji'(Strobilanthus Kunthanus) that last bloomed in 2004, is nature's gift to Kodaikanal. Kodaikanal located amidst the folds of the verdant Pali hills is one of the most popular serene hill stations in India, which mesmerises any visitor and is frequented all through the year.
Kodai is situated at an altitude of about 2,133-m high and covers an area of 21.45-sq-km. The hill town is renowned for its educational institutions of international repute. The hill-plantain fruits and plums are known for their freshness and taste. Berijam lake, one among the beautiful lakes of South India, spreads over an area of 24 hectares.

trichur india

Trichur with its rich history, cultural heritage and archeological wealth is the cultural capital of Kerala. Trichur is famed and wide for its pooram festival. Thrissur and Pooram, (the festival of festivals with an unmatched pageantry of a hundred drums, dozens of caparisoned elephants and brilliant fireworks) are so inseparably integrated that the extravaganza of Pooram, excites you in the same breath when you hear the name of Trichur.
This town is also a veritable treasure trove of history. The sylvan beauty of Northern Kerala begins here, with tiny, tranquil hamlets by the sides of tediously flowing rivers. A cultural center, the Kerala Kalamandalam, the Kerala Sahitya Academy and Kerala Sangeetha Nadaka Academy are located here.
The word 'Trichur' is the anglicized form of the Malayalam name of the town 'Thri-Siva-Perur', meaning the town of Lord Siva.The name is appropriate, for Trichur derives its main glory from Vadakunnathan Temple, (Vadakunnathan, Lord of the North, is a name of siva) that dominates the topography of the town.Trichur is of hoary fame, and the origin of Vadakkunnathan Temple is ascribed to Parasurama, the legendary hero who is said to have reclaimed Kerala from the sea by a miraculous feat. In historical times it was a suburb of Musiris (present Cranganore) the capital of the ancient Chera Empire, an international Emporium where most of the ancient trading nationals of the world had their settlements.
From very early times Trichur has been a centre of learning and, with the decline of Buddism and Jainism and the establishment of the supremacy of Brahminism during the revival of Hinduisum, Trichur became an important centre of Sanskrit learning. The great Sankara Acharya had taught Advaita here. After his travels in different regions of India he is believed to have come back and settled in Trichur and died here. Sankara Acharya's disciples Hastamalaka, Thotaka, Padmapada and Sudhachara established in the town four Maddams, namely the Northern Madham, the Middle Madham, the ln-Between Madham and the Southern Madham respectively, all of which are extant except the In-Between one.
Trichur occupies a prominent place in the history and culture of Kerala and is said to be the Cultural Capital of the State. It is also one of the main trade centers in the state.The present Trichur District was carved out of a bigger District of the same name on 1st April, 1958. It derives its name from the location of its headquarters at Trichur . The town is built around a hillock atop which is the Vadakkumnathan Kshetram or temple which has Shiva as the presiding deity.
Trichur rose in importance due, it is believed, to Raja Rama Varma, popularly known as `Sakthan Thampuran' who ascended the throne of Kochi in 1790. Large areas of Trichur were captured by the Zamorins of Kozhikode in the 14th and 15th centuries. Later, in the latter half of the 18th centuries, Tipu Sultan held sway over Trichur until the European domination began under the Portugese, the Dutch, and the English.
Long ago, the vast open area around the temple was a magnificent teak forest called Thekkinkadu. Today, the forest has given way to one of the most important examples of Kerala's architecture which often does away with the imposing `gopurams' of South Indiantemples.This temple features low, tiled roofs, an abundance of woodwork, and the famous `koothambalam' or theatre hall with sloping roofs of metal plates within which is performed the dramatic art form `chakiar koothu' . The Vadakkumnathan temple is also well-known for its murals depicting scenes from The Mahabharatha as well as exquisite paintings and carvings.
South East corner of the district is bounded by Tamil Nadu.The Periyar, The Chalakudy, The Karuvannur and Ponnani (Bharatha Puzha) are the main river systems in the district.
A place of great antiquity, Trichur was also known by such names as 'Vrishabhadripuram' and ‘Ten Kailasm’ in ancient days. The famous Kerala Kalamandiram,Cheruthuruthi, founded by the late poet Vallathol Narayana Menon, is in Trichur District. The Kerala Sahitya Academy and Kerala Sangeetha Nadaka are situated in Trichur town

erode india

Erode is well known for Powerloom Textile Industries and cultivation of turmeric in agriculture. Kangayam Bulls and Uthukuli butter are famous in Tamilnadu State. In textiles notable products such as Towels, Bed sheets and Lungis are exported worldwide.The city is located in a cotton growing region, and its industries include cotton ginning and the manufacture of transport equipment.
The root for the name of the Town "ERODE" may be because of the existence of the two (Odais) water courses viz., Perumpalayam and Kalingarayan Channel. But there is also a legend which says that the place apparently derives, its name from the words "Eara Odu" which means "wet skulls".
Erode was under the regimes of Cara kings in 850 A.D. Thereafter (in 1000 A.D. - 1275 A.D.) this place came under the rule of Cholas with Dharapuram as their Headquarters. Subsequently it came under the control of Padiars (from 1276 A.D.). Only during this period, a ruler by name Veerapandian caused the digging of Kalingarayan Channel. Then the Muslims (Modeen Sulthans) took over the rule after which Nayaks of Madurai ruled. Then Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan had their sway. In 1799 when Tippu fell to the British, the East Indian Company took over the administration.
During Hyder Ali's regime, this town flourished with 300 houses. A population of 1500, a mud fort, with a garrison of 4000 soldiers surrounded by coconut groves and fertile lands bounded on the north by River Cauvery and east by Kalingarayan channel (By Bucchanan 7th and 8th November 1800). But owing to the successive wars of Marathas, Mysore and British invasions, it become almost deserted and ruined. However, as peace was restored by the British, the people returned and settled here. Within a year it began to grow with 400 houses, and a population of 2000. The garrison withdrew in 1807, and the ruined fort was levelled as a relief work during the famine in 1877. The place enclosed within the rampart was occupied by the houses. About a mile and half east of the town, there is an old bridge which spans River Cauvery. The wall at "Pechiparai" situated at the present V.O.C.Park was once celebrated for its "wholesome and milky water". There are two old temples - one dedicated to Lord Siva and the other to Lord Vishnu.
The root for the name of the Town "ERODE" may be because of the existence of the two water courses viz., Perumpalayam and Kalingarayan Canal, (hence Eru Odai, meaning two rivers in Tamil). But there is also a legend which says that the place apparently derives its name from the words "Eera Odu" which means "well skulls". According to the story, Dakshaprajapathi, who had given his daughter in marriage to Lord Siva, conducted a Yaga. For this Yaga, Lord Siva was not invited. However, Dakshyayini came to take part in this Yaga much against the wish of her husband Lord Siva. On coming to Yagakundam, Dakshyayini was not welcomed by her parents or anyone. She was vexed and threw herself in the Yagakundam and burned to ashes. On hearing this, Lord Siva got highly enraged, proceeded to the sacrificial spot and threw every one present including Brahma. The skulls and bones were thrown in River Cauvery and remained wet always. Hence the name "Eera Odu" (wet skull) - Erode.

pollachi india

Pollachi town is about 40 Kms from Coimbatore on the way to Parambikulam - Aliyar Project. Next to Coimbatore it is the leading town of the district and an important commercial centre. Pollachi is a town and a municipality in the Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu, India. Pollachi is the nearest town to Indira Gandhi National Park and it exports coconuts and tender coconuts to all over India.There are several coconut groves and hence it is called as ‘Coconut City’.
Since Pollachi is near to Western Ghats, it has a pleasant climate throughout the year. Pollachi is also termed as a trendy film location for Tamil, Malayalam and Hindi film industry. Therefore, it is also called as “Mini Kodambakkam”. It has a big market for agricultural products which is the main occupation of India. Jaggery Market in Pollachi is Asia’s largest jaggery market.There are several notorious tourist spots in and around Pollachi.

Nilgiris

Welcome to the Nilgiris Bordering the Karnataka and Kerala states, the Nilgiris or Blue mountains is a veritable fairyland. It has hill stations at various altitudes and is a very popular travel destination. There are cloud-kissing peaks, dense forests, rushing streams, undulating emerald green plains, breath-taking view of sudden drops, valleys and glades.The entire area of the district, 2,500 sq.km. in extent is unique for it's elevation, natural beauty and tourist spots. There is no better holiday mountain resort in India than the Nilgiris. It is here the world's widest valley Ketti is found. Many breathtaking wild gardens in the Western Catchment provide trekking and hiking grounds for the nature lovers. Ooty and Udhagamandalam are various names of Ottakkalmandu which means "the village of a single stone". An important point on the Mettupalayam-Ooty route is the pretty town of Coonoor; and on the Mysore-Ooty route, the high landmark is the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary.

mangalore india

Mangalore - The city derives its name from the presiding deity Mangaladevi, the goddess of fortune. With an important port, this coastal town is a major commercial centre. It is a centre for the export of coffee and cashew nuts. The city has a modern port now. The major home industries are Beedi's, Tiles, Cashew , Coffee curing and Fishing. Mangalore is located near the backwaters formed by converging Netravati and Gurpur rivers.

palakkad india

Palakkad is a land of palm trees and paddy fields. It's known to be rich in flora and fauna. Etymologically Palakkad is derived from the words Pala and Kadu. Pala, (Alstonia scholaris) is a tree with sweet scented flowers and Kadu meaning forest.
Palakkad has probably the biggest mountain pass in the world (30-40 Kms) separating the two folds of the Western Ghats on the border of Kerala with Tamil Nadu. It is the chief granary of Kerala, often called the Gateway of Kerala. Palakkad lies at the foot of the gigantic Western ghats on the border of Kerala. Palakkad is known for its historical background and the remnants of Tippu Sulthan’s Fort. Palakkad district is situated in the South West Coast of India. This district with mountains, forests, and fertile valleys, rivers and mountain streams are rich in flora and fauna.

kumbakonam india

Kumbakonam is one of the oldest towns in Tamilnadu and is famous for its Mahamaham festival. In the 7th Century it was the Capital of Chola Kings. Kumbakonam, the famous temple town of South India, is picturesquely located amidst the two rivers, Cauvery
Kumbakonam is the temple city of South India situated in Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu. The city is famous for the Mahamaham festival that is celebrated once in 12 years in the Mahamaham tank located in the heart of it. The town has also been well - known for its prestigious educational institutions which have turned out eminent stalwarts in diverse spheres. The town is famous for brass vessels. It is primarily a market town for the predominantly agriculture based villages surrounding it. Betel leaves are cultivated more in Kumbakonam since it is also called as Kumbakonam Vettrilai (in Tamil).
Kumbakonam is a busy, dusty commercial centre, nestled along the Cauvery River some 37 Kms northeast of Thanjavur. There are many tourist places to visit in Kumbakonam. Dozens of temples are scattered around the town and this is a good base to visit the superb Chola temples nearby, or to head east to the coastal towns of the Cauvery Delta.
For a pleasant stay there are numerous Kumbakonam hotels, cottages, restaurants, service apartments, resorts and guest house available ranging from budget to Luxurious.

hyderabad city

Hyderabad, in Andhra is the sixth largest city in India. Hyderabad was founded in 1591 and planned as a grid with the Charminar at its centre. It has now grown well beyond the confines of the original walled city, to include a new town north of the Musi river, the Military Cantonment at Secunderabad and a burgeoning high-tech Estate, nicknamed "Cyberabad". The city's sights include the grand palaces of its erstwhile rulers, the Nizams, and the colourful bazaars and mosques of the old city.

9-5- 2013 Thursday

1.Managed to get up bit early its not  all that easy anyway managed it thats how the day started; 2.GTA wont wakeup sleeps  so head ache starts but waited coolly instead of shouting;Time is flying i need to catch up i mean planning for the day and achive few important tasks;Discussions with 3.GTA  had and  suggestion on selection of name had relief; 4.Election results of Karnataka read Vote is powerful;5.Tweeted later; 6.quickly scanned 2 dailies; 7.Seen Care taken by Coffee maker poor coffee of helper; 8.Land phone kept for  charging ;9.GTa was seen busy in procuring water; 10.Known the meaning of Forum from Wikepedia;


11.****One good hunch for me is RX is every thing for me to plan braving act next summer; 12.summer starts from next satday yoyo!
13.New araial exposure had anyway; at charla palli; etc;gas companies;

14.***Owner aunty gave shock with rent hike starts from jan 1st 2014;
15.after joining NRN and one call; then decided to go that company by auto on the way written 60 plus entries auto walla was too good; submitted proposal asked for NRN id proof;


16.1 hour stint at sadgun cities content posted;

Days calls Flash:how many people i keep in touch from now to analyse;
17.1.durga ...Nuvvulu;prhlads sons marriage details known
18.2.satish
19.3.seenaiah:kamal connected;
20.4.Ajay
21.5.Nrn;
22.6.Ramoji;
23.7.madhu;
24.8.rama chandra;
25.Rajesh parked his byke later removed with GTA initiation;

26.owner aunty gave some hints abt her  dauter in law;

27.Shouts of galli fruits vendor have continued;Called Chengaiah;Heat unbearable even in the morning;

28.4450 blogs posts completed at vilekhari;
29;NRN is leaving??
30 usage of rajni gandha provoked dental pain again;
31,heavy heat;

8th may 2013

Expected things 2  became bouncers; some miss understandings too evoked mixed response so came back home early and retired; few other failures too for the day; refils;photon payment; That vijaya butter milk was too good; Thanks indulgence is reduced;At home GTA made fan issue;

Marriage news of Parmesh; and cool drink; WOW 2 hours work at Sadgun Cafe; managed to post Dubai content and few more editings also did on the way discussed association issue with Kiarn;Unexpectedly Chengaih joined at night gave photo;Print of mission statement also took;

Possible rupture was owners daughter was seen sitting with GTA annoyed me much for not noticing me;

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